Ransford, G. A., A. A. Finnerty, K. D. Collerson (1981) Europa's petrological thermal history. Nature 289: 21-24.

principle objective: demonstrate that water/ice condensed in Europa is mostly contained in hydrous silicates


Finnerty, A. A., G. A. Ransford, D. C. Pieri, K. D. Collerson. Is Europa surface cracking due to thermal evolution? Nature 289: 24-27.

thesis: "some of the surface features of Europa may have originated by processes within a model planet in which hydrated silicates are stable"