Spectroscopic data provide a principal interpretive base for remote compositional studies. The PDS Subnode organizes spectroscopic and ancillary data and makes them available to the scientific community for research. Spectrafinder is a mouse controlled search and retrieval system that is maintained on-line for the user community. The Spectrafinder system allows users to identify and locate spectroscopic information that has been obtained and published previously as well as to become familiar with more recent data associated with on-going research. The purpose is to promote broad communication and exchange of spectroscopic data among investigators, enabling or enhancing scientific return.
Principal data include visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared spectra, acquired both in the laboratory and with remote sensors (including telescopic instruments). Associated data provided with the spectra include information about the sample or object, sample composition (as available), instrument used, Principal Investigator (and address), references to published data, etc.
Spectroscopic data are classified either as PUBLIC (public domain) or BROWSE (ongoing research). Although both types of data can be accessed through Spectrafinder for viewing, only PUBLIC data can be transferred to the user for further analysis. If a user is interested in acquiring data in the BROWSE category, he/she must contact the PI for permission to use. Most spectroscopic categories maintained by PDS are dynamic (continually growing and expanding) and necessarily consist of both Public and Browse data.
The Spectrafinder structure has been developed and tested; and data are presently ingesting into the spectral database. The database is expected to grow considerably over the next several years. It should be noted that since spectra are derived from diverse sources, not all data within PDS may contain detailed information about the sample or the object for which spectra were acquired. Much valuable spectroscopic data for planetary materials and planetary bodies have been produced through NASA's Research and Analysis program and these form the principal PDS data collection. Only a few data acquisition programs, however, were designed to produce "library quality" data, e.g., data with complete documentation of physical and compositional properties. Ancillary data for spectra within PDS will continually be upgraded as data become available, and "library quality" data sets will be identified as they are incorporated into the Spectrafinder structure.
Contact George He with any suggestions or requests for Spectrafinder capabilities. Please report any errors, major or minor, that occur in PDS Spectrafinder data bases. Address comments to the Internet address: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Spectrafinder has been developed on a Sun SPARC 10 station and uses basic X-Window calls. Login through a X-Window compatible machine (X Window, MacX, etc.). A 1024 by 800 pixel screen would be the best choice for display. Moving windows around may be required for a screen that has 800 by 600 pixels in resolution. The following is a list of necessary fonts for this release:
a) "-adobe-courier-bold-r-normal--10-100-75-75-m-60-iso8859-1" b) "-adobe-courier-bold-r-normal--18-180-75-75-m-110-iso8859-1" c) "-adobe-courier-bold-r-normal--14-140-75-75-m-90-iso8859-1" d) "-adobe-courier-bold-r-normal--12-120-75-75-m-70-iso8859-1" e) "-adobe-helvetica-bold-r-normal--12-120-75-75-p-70-iso8859-1" f) "-adobe-helvetica-bold-r-normal--10-100-75-75-p-60-iso8859-1"
Operational functions and data available are indicated with buttons and are shown with CAPITAL letters. Labels are not capitalized. Inactive functions are shown without buttons. [Capabilities expected in the near future are also shown without buttons, but longer term structure is not shown.]
Any NASA funded researcher may gain acces to Spectrafinder. Contact George He for user ID and password. NASA grant/contract number or RTOP number may be requested. Phone: 401-863-1062. Internet: email@example.com.
a) Log into an X-Window compatible machine at your own site. b) Open an X-window compatible terminal or window. c) Open host machine at Brown On SUN:
(220.127.116.11) On a DEC machine, grant the privilege to pds.geo.brown.edu d) Login to Host machine at Brown: [telnet pds.geo.brown.edu ] username: [yourname] password: [yourpass] e) Set environment on Sun if necessary e.g. [setenv DISPLAY yourmachineIP:0.0] where yourmachine is the IP address for your machine. f) Run spectrafinder [spectrafinder]
A Control Panel and an Introduction message with short instructions [Figure 1] will appear after login. Almost all operations other than data selection are performed from the Control Panel. Clicking on a button anywhere in Spectrafinder activates that function or selects that information (clicking a second time deactivates or deselects).
If telecommunications is unacceptably slow, a streamlined display is available that eliminates many of the nice visuals (click FULL/SHORT). Brief on-line help is available. When HELP is clicked from the control panel, a short explanatory message will be shown at the bottom of the control panel. When the mouse is clicked at a new location, a message appears describing the function of that area or button. Note: help must be off to perform Spectrafinder functions.
There are three general types of windows in the current Spectrafinder structure, one for searching or locating data, one for data viewing and presentation, and one for information and/or data transfer. These are summarized here with detailed descriptions of functions in the following sections.
To begin a session, click NEW under Spectrafinder Start Functions. The first level data structure will be displayed [see Figure 2]. Click on whatever type of data are to be examined. Some data categories will display a second level structure (e.g. Figure 3). After selecting the data category(ies) desired, click SEARCH. The data base will be searched to find how many samples and spectra exist in the category selected. The number of spectra and the number of samples available in the designated category are shown in the message area at the bottom of the Control Panel. To narrow the field (for example, limit the data to that for a more narrow range or properties or that acquired by a particular PI), simply click additional properties and search again.
To display information about a sample (ancillary data) and plots of spectra click DISPLAY. A new window environment will appear with graphics display for the spectra and ancillary data in text (Figure 4). There are several options to step through the data selected. Depending on whether SAMPLE or SPECTRUM is depressed, FORWARD goes to the next sample or spectrum and BACK goes back to the previous sample or spectrum. [Subsequent versions of Spectrafinder will allow the ancillary information to be searched without plotting the data.] Individual spectra can be stored in a temporary file and retrieved for comparison (KEEP - RECALL).
There are currently three ways to identify and prepare data to be transferred to the user: 1) BUFFER contains all the public data identified in the search operation. 2) DATASET identifies specific prepared data sets (e.g., Gaffey's 1976 meteorite collection of spectra). 3) SELECT contains the spectra selected and stored temporarily (through keep).
There are several sub-panels on the Spectrafinder Control Panel. These currently include groups of General, Primary Operations, and Data Display commands and a small sub-panel at the bottom that displays text information from several commands.
INTRO. The introduction that appears at the beginning of a session can be recalled at any time with this command. This text panel contains general background information (see Figure 1).
HELP. When help is activated, place the cursor on the item for which more information is desired and click the mouse. Brief information will be displayed in the small sub panel located at the bottom of the Control Panel. Be sure to disengage this mode (click help again) when returning to the principal search and plotting functions of Spectrafinder.
EXIT. This command exits Spectrafinder and returns to the host computer.
SOFTW. If network connections are too slow to be practical, the Spectrafinder software can be transferred to a local computer (although the spectra data bases remain on the PDS computer). This command displays a text screen that provides instructions on how to transfer Spectrafinder software and ancillary data (see Figure 5). Since both the PDS data and Spectrafinder itself continually expand in capabilities and scope, it is recommended that newer versions of the software and ancillary data be downloaded regularly.
FULL/SHORT. This button is a toggle switch between a full and a streamlined display style. Full/Short display mode can be changed at any time. When the network is slow, a streamlined display can increase the speed of a session quite a lot.
Start. These buttons initiate a search or expand a previous search.
NEW. This button will initiate the top level Data Structure (see below). Each time new is selected, the buffer for spectra will be cleaned before each search. Data selected by the search will fill the buffer. This is the normal working mode.
APPEND. If append is selected, any search action will append spectra with newly selected characteristics to the previous search buffer until the buffer is full. The internal search buffer is currently set at 900 spectra.
Transfer. Selection of any of these buttons will allow a data file to be prepared in order to transfer spectra to the user through a FTP command. All data is prepared in ASCII using PDS format and standard labels. [Currently all PDS labels are prepared for transfer. Subsequent versions of Spectrafinder will allow the user to select which labels and ancillary data to be transferred with the data.] Only Public data will be included in the data file. No Browse data will be transferred without permission of the PI. INSTRUCTIONS are available for each selection (see Figure 6).
BUFFER. Selection of this option will prepare all the public data identified in the search or append operation.
SELECT. Selection of this option will prepare all public spectra selected and stored temporarily (through keep-see plot).
DATASET. This option allows specific prepared data sets or data in a published reference to be transferred as a whole.
RETURN. Stop the data display functions and return to data structure windows
PLOTIND. Each spectrum in the search buffer is given a plotindex number. A series of these plotindex numbers can be displayed at the bottom of the Plot window to allow quick access to any plot in the buffer (click on the plotindex number). The "Start" number is the first plotindex number to be shown. If the display is slow, this option is not recommended.
RESET. Resets plotting parameters to the current spectrum, cleans the Plot window and plots the current spectrum.
UPDATE. Values for wavelength and reflectance are monitored as data are plotted. If any of these values are out of the range for the current scale, update will reset the scale to automatically include all data (cumulative from the last reset).
REFRESH. Refreshes the plot window. Erases previous spectra and plots the current spectrum.
ERRORBAR. Plots available errorbars when selected.
GRID. Puts a grid on the reflectance and wavelength scale.
FASTVIEW. Displays spectra rapidly in groups of "#Spectra".
#Spectra. Defines the number of spectra to be displayed rapidly as a group in fastview. This number can be changed by the user (click on the number below).
Start. Each spectrum in the search buffer is given an index number. "Start" identifies the plot index number to begin data presentation. This number can be changed by the user (click on the number below).
FORWARD. Moves the Ancillary Data and Plot forward one spectrum or sample.
BACK. Moves the Ancillary Data and Plot backward one spectrum or sample.
SAMPLE. Depending on the search initiated, this refers to the sample or the planetary body. When selected, the Ancillary data will display information about the sample or planetary body. Movement by forward or back goes to the next sample or planetary body in the search buffer.
SPECTRUM. When selected, the Ancillary data will display information for the specific spectrum. Movement by forward or back is by the next spectrum in the search buffer..
Wavel. Wavelength range of the spectra
Data. Actual value for spectra plotted (cumulative from the last reset)
Plot. Value of current scale. These can be changed by the user (click on number below).
Refl. Range of reflectance values of the spectra
Data. Actual value for spectra plotted (cumulative from the last reset)
Plot. Value of current scale. These can be changed by the user (click on number below).
KEEP. Store the current spectrum displayed in a select buffer. When keep is activated, a series of letters will appear at the bottom of the Plot window. Clicking on any letter will store the current spectrum in that location. These are temporary storage IDs and can be replaced by overwriting. Up to 52 spectra can be placed in the select buffer (and can later be transferred to the user).
RECALL. Recalls a spectrum from the select buffer and displays it on the plot. Click on the letter(s) at the bottom of the Plot window.
SCALED. When activated, the data will be scaled to the wavelength shown on the right before being plotted. The scaling number can be changed by the user (click on the number).
During help, a brief description of the function selected is provided.
During Data Display, the number of samples (or bodies) in the search buffer is shown as well as which spectrum is being displayed for that sample. (The total number of spectra in the buffer is shown in the Plot Window title as well as the plotindex of the spectum displayed.)
These windows allow specific data or information to be identified. Once characterizing parameters have been selected, the PDS data base will be searched and a data buffer created that contains all spectra (both Public and Browse) that fulfill the selected parameters. Both the Top and Second Levels of the data structure contain several buttons along the top of the window that perform or initiate operations. These can be selected from any Data Structure window.
SEARCH. Search the PDS data base (using the parameters selected). The number of samples and number of spectra with the attributes selected in the Data Structure windows will be displayed in the information panel on the bottom of the Control Panel (a specific sample may have more than one spectra). The data buffer currently can contain 900 spectra ordered by sample ID (see Ancillary Data below). If an excessively large number of spectra are selected, select additional characteristics from the data structure windows to limit the field of spectra.
DISPLAY. Display the data selected by search as plots and ancillary data. A Plot window and an Ancillary Data window (see below) will appear when display is selected. Operations are controlled through the Data Display part of the Control Panel.
REFRESH. Refresh this window (if part of it is missing).
RESET. Reset all the entries in the Data Structure to default (unpressed buttons).
RETURN. Return to the previous window.
Top Level Data Structure Window. This window displays the primary organization of PDS spectroscopic data, which includes both laboratory spectra of planetary materials and remotely acquired spectra of planetary bodies (see Figure 2). Any button can be selected to identify or characterize the desired spectra. When the PDS data base is searched (search operation), spectra must fulfill all the selected properties to be included in the buffer. Most categories are very broad and require further definition of properties. When these categories are selected a Second Level Data Structure will appear with subcategories for selection (see below).
Once a category is selected, the button will appear depressed. To deselect a category simply click the depressed button and it will return to the un-selected mode (a normal button). Categories for which data currently exist in the PDS structure are indicated with buttons. Categories for which data should be available soon are listed without buttons. Empty spaces are placeholders for future input.
RANGE. This identifies the spectral range of spectra to be selected. If none are selected, all will be considered.
OBJECT. Remotely acquired spectra for individual planetary bodies can be selected here.
LABORATORY. There are two subcategories that can be applied to any laboratory data, the Type or planetary origin of the sample and the kind of Instrument used for the measurement. If none are selected, all will be considered.
MINERALS. The specific type of mineral can be selected.
ROCKS/SOIL. Broad categories of rocks and soil can be selected.
GAS/LIQUID. These categories have currently not been implemented.
ICES. These categories have currently not been implemented.
EXPERIMENTAL. A variety of prepared materials can be selected.
DIRECT_ACCESS. These categories allow a direct route of searching to be initiated based on different information. It can be used with or without other selections. Once activated, information on all the parameters selected in other columns will be used in addition to the direct_acc input to search the whole data base. When a category is selected, an input window will appear asking for additional information. For text input, a short form can be used if a star "*" completes the input (no spaces). Text input is not case sensitive. Note, however, the response may not always be unique for some selections.
NAME. If an object or sample has a specific name, it can be located through this option (e.g., "Ceres" an asteroid, "Allende" a meteorite).
NUMBER. If an object or sample is identified by number, the number can be used to locate the spectra (e.g., "4" for asteroid Vesta, "62231" for Apollo 16 soil sample 62231).
PI. Data acquired by an individual Principal Investigator (PI) or secondary investigator (collaborator, student) can be selected. The text window associated with this option provides the address and phone number of the PI.
DATASETS. Well defined data sets can be selected separately (e.g., M. J. Gaffey's collection of meteorite spectra acquired during the 1970's).
PUBLISHED. Recent spectra published in a specific manuscript can be selected here by the publication reference. This is a new category, but one which should allow individual investigators a simple means for including data into PDS. [Subsequent versions of Spectrafinder will have a template for users to upload spectra.]
Second Level Data Structure Window. These windows provide more detailed information about the category selected in the Top Level Data Structure. Each window (see Figure 3) may also have subcategories within a column category (indicated with >). Individual subcategories may be selected or whole categories may be selected. Once selected, the button will appear depressed. To deselect a category simply click the depressed button and it will return to the un-selected mode (a normal button). reset from this window will clear only the depressed buttons in the Second Level Data Structure window.
There are several types of Ancillary Data windows, depending on the type of data selected. These divide into three general types: Sample, Planetary Body, and Spectrum. Information about the sample measured in the laboratory. Unless otherwise specified, information about the data selected are displayed in order of their identification (ID) number.
Parameters common to many Ancillary Data windows:
ID. Every PDS entry (either sample or separate remote measurement) is given an identification number. Although each entry has an unique ID, several formats are used in PDS Spectrafinder. For laboratory samples, RELAB format is currently used throughout, R-ID. This format is XY-ABC-NNN where XY are letters that help designate the type of data, ABC is the PI's initials or other identifier of the source of the data, and NNN is a sequential number for that category. ID's for remote measurements are tailored to fit with convention or previous ID schemes. For asteroids, A-ID refers to the asteroid number. For lunar areas, L-ID refers to an original MITPAL number (if designated) or a sequential number assigned by PDS when the entry is made.
Name. The formal or common name used to identify the sample or object.
Gtype, Type, Stype. Three cagetories from the general (Gtype) to specific (Stype) which describe or categorize the sample or planetary body (or region thereof).
PI/SI. The Principal Investigator/Secondary Investigator responsible for acquiring or preparing the data. This item is a button which, when selected, provides the full name, address, and phone number of the PI/SI.
Release Date. The data are either Public or a date is given when Browse data will become public.
REFER. This item is a button which, when selected, provides a/the appropriate reference in published literature that discusses or presents the data.
text. Any pertinent information about the sample, object or spectrum that is not included in other categories.
Additional parameters frequently used for Sample windows:
Origin. Source area or original location of the sample.
Pmin. The minimum particle size of the sample (for powders/soils)
Pmax. The maximum particle size of the sample (for powders/soils)
Textur. The physical state of the sample (powder, slab, thinsection, etc.)
Locat. Current location of the sample.
CHEMI. If a chemical analysis of this sample is available, this will appear as a button which, when selected, provides chemical information.
MODALM. If modal mineralogy of this sample is available, this will appear as a button which, when selected, provides mineral abundance information.
Additional parameters frequently used for Spectrum windows:
WVmin. Minimum wavelength in spectrum
WVmax. Maximum wavelength in spectrum
#Samp. Number of spectral channels measured
Date. Date spectrum was acquired.
For remote measurements:
R Asc (or Lat.). celestial right ascension (or latitude on body).
Decl (or Long) celestial declination (or longitude on body).
For laboratory measurements:
i ang. Angle of incident beam to the sample normal for bidirectional measurements (usually reflectance).
e ang. Angle of emission (reflected) beam to the sample normal for bidirectional measurements (usually reflectance).
Diffuse. Diffuse reflectance geometry (integrating sphere).
Bicon. Biconical reflectance geometry.
Transm. Transmission measurement.
Emiss. Emission measurement.
This window displays spectra as a function of wavelength (see Figure 4). Operations are controlled from the Control Panel (see Data Display section of the Control Panel). The plotindex of the spectrum will be shown in the window label along with the total number of spectra selected during the search. Unless otherwise specified, the data selected are plotted in order of their sample ID (see Ancillary Data).